Prof. dr. ing., dr. marketing Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania
Plenary Talk: Vision and Reality Regarding the Role of Bibliometrics in Scientific Research Evaluation
Abstract: The origins of bibliometrics go back to 1969, when Pritchard explained it as ”the application of mathematical and statistical methods to books and other media of communication”. From the quantitative perspective, bibliometrics take in consideration the necessity to measure scientific research. Why? With the internationalization of the scientific community, we face the economic and societal uses of science. Bibliometrics represent a statistical approach to master the flowing flood of scientific information, to measure the quantitative aspects of these processes and provide the results to both scientists and users outside the scientific community. From a qualitative perspective, bibliometrics represent a sociometrical approach to understanding the meaning of scientific communities and draw conclusions concerning the organization of science systems. The impact of bibliometrics is huge. Bibliometrics plays an increasing role in research evaluation, quantitative formulas with bibliometric components are used for allocation of funding. Is bibliometrics the right way to analyze the quality of scientific research? Does research evaluation change what and where to publish, making scholars only consider top journals? We will try to find some answers together.
Brief Biography: Angela Repanovici is working as a professor at Transilvania University of Brasov. She completed her PhD in engineering science in 1999 and PhD in marketing in 2009 with thesis: Marketing strategies about promotion and visibility scientific production by digital repositories. She was university library director 2001-2008; she is the president of Information Literacy section of the Romanian Library Association. She has coordinated many national and international research projects, with application in information systems, information communication, and information literacy. She has published books and research articles, teaches Information Literacy, Information Management, Marketing Strategies. Personal site:http://arepanovici.wixsite.com/mysite
Juan Gorraiz1, Florian Bayer2, Lukas Mitterauer3, Steve Reding1&4 and Christian Gumpenberger1
1University of Vienna, Vienna University Library, Department for Bibliometrics & Publication Strategies, Vienna, Austria 2University of Vienna, Dean’s office of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Austria 3University of Vienna, Quality Assurance, Vienna, Austria 4University of Vienna, Vienna University Library, Vienna, Austria
Plenary Talk: “Make visible what, without you, might perhaps never have been seen.” -Robert Bresson- Increasing Visibility in the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH)
Abstract: A large number of earlier studies have shown that bibliometric models for describing impact of research are of relatively low importance and significance for the case of the social sciences and the humanities (SSH) in general and for the specific research settings and practices in non-English speaking countries in particular. This is due to the low coverage of the SSH in international multidisciplinary citation databases (Archambault, Vignola-Gagné, Côté, Larivière & Gingras, 2013; Hug, Ochsner & Daniel, 2013; Nederhof, 2006; Ochsner, Hug & Daniel, 2012a & 2012b; Sivertsen & Larsen, 2012; Mañana-Rodriguez & Giménez-Toledo, 2013).A quantitative analysis of the longitudinal research output development in the SSH was performed at the University of Vienna for a six-year publication period (2007-2012) (Gumpenberger, Sorz, Wieland & Gorraiz, 2014 & 2016). This quantitative analysis has been complemented by semi-structured interviews of researchers in 2014 and 2015 (Gorraiz, Reding, Sorz, Wieland & Gumpenberger, 2016). In this talk we present key findings from a follow-up online survey about increasing visibility in the social sciences and humanities (SSH), which was carried out at the University of Vienna in 2016. This survey was directed at the scientific personnel of all faculties corresponding to these disciplines. The participants were asked about the following topics: searching and finding; publishing; visibility; assessment of research performance (publications). Within this context the survey was used to determine the different publication habits in these disciplines. Based on the results desired infrastructure and services can be tailored to the needs of the participating researchers. Keywords: University of Vienna; social sciences; humanities; SSH; researcher; visibility; increasing visibility; survey References Archambault, É., Vignola-Gagné, É., Côté, G., Larivière, V., & Gingras, Y. (2013). Benchmarking scientific output in the social sciences and humanities: The limits of existing databases. Scientometrics, 68(3), 329–342. doi:10.1007/s11192-006-0115-z Gorraiz, J., Reding, S., Sorz, J., Wieland, M., & Gumpenberger, C. (2016). Lending an ear to SSH @ Vienna University. Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators. València, Spain, September 14-16, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/STI2016.2016.xxxx Gumpenberger, C., Sorz, J., Wieland, M., & Gorraiz, J. (2014). Humanities in the bibliometric spotlight – Research output analysis at the University of Vienna and considerations for increasing visibility. In Ed Noyons (Ed.), Proceedings of the science and technology indicators conference 2014 Leiden “Context Counts: Pathways to Master Big and Little Data”, 216–225. Gumpenberger, C., Sorz, J., Wieland, M., & Gorraiz, J. (2016). Humanities and social sciences in the bibliometric spotlight - research output analysis at the University of Vienna and considerations for increasing visibility. Research Evaluation, in press. Hug, S. E., Ochsner, M., & Daniel, H.-D. (2013). Criteria for assessing research quality in the humanities: a Delphi study among scholars of English literature, German literature and art history. Research Evaluation, 22(5), 369–383. doi:10.1093/reseval/rvt008 Mañana-Rodriguez, J. & Giménez-Toledo, E. (2013). Scholarly publishing in social sciences and humanities, associated probabilities of belonging and its spectrum: a quantitative approach for the Spanish case. Scientometrics, 94, 893- 910. doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0838-y Nederhof, A. J. (2006). Bibliometric monitoring of research performance in the Social Sciences and the Humanities: A Review. Scientometrics, 66(1), 81–100. doi:10.1007/s11192-006-0007-2 Ochsner, M., Hug, S. E., & Daniel, H.-D. (2012a). Four types of research in the humanities: Setting the stage for research quality criteria in the humanities. Research Evaluation, 22(2), 79–92. doi:10.1093/reseval/rvs039 Ochsner, M., Hug, S. E., & Daniel, H.-D. (2012b). Indicators for Research Quality in the Humanities: Opportunities and Limitations. Bibliometrie - Praxis und Forschung, 1. http://www.bibliometrie-pf.de/article/view/157/192 Sivertsen, G. & Larsen, B. (2012). Comprehensive bibliographic coverage of the social sciences and humanities in a citation index: an empirical analysis of the potential. Scientometrics, 91(2), 567–575. doi:10.1007/s11192-011-0615-3.
Brief Biography: Juan Gorraiz studied physics at the University of Madrid and at the University of Vienna, where he obtained his doctoral degree. He has been working on bibliometric studies and projects since 1992 and is also engaged as a lecturer for the university master course “Library and Information Studies”. Since 2008 he is also head of the Department for Bibliometrics and Publication Strategies of the Library and Archive Services of the University of Vienna, one of the first library departments devoted specially to bibliometrics. He has a long experience in the assessment of quality and accuracy of data sources as well as in citation analyses and new metrics (usage metrics and altmetrics). Furthermore he was organiser and programme chair of the “10th International Conference on Science & Technical Indicators” 2008 as well as of the “14th International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics Conference 2013” in Vienna. Last but not least, he is one of the initiators of the “European Summer School for Scientometrics” (esss), where he is engaged as steering committee member and lecturer.
Brief Biography: Christian Gumpenberger has a doctoral degree in Veterinary Medicine from the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna and a Master’s degree in Library and Information Studies from the Danube University Krems. He was head of the Department of Public Services and Reference Librarians at the University Library of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, head of the Novartis Knowledge Centre Vienna, as well as Global Project Manager for the Novartis Institutional Repository Project and Open Access Champion at Novartis, and also ran his own information consultancy business, focusing on project management in the field of new trends in scholarly communication, especially Open Access. He is currently a member of the Bibliometrics Department of the Library and Archive Services, University of Vienna, coordinator of the Council of Austrian University Libraries, programme chair of the “14th International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics Conference 2013”, in Vienna.
Technical Fixes and Ethical Challenges for Activity Monitoring in Physical Public Libraries Through Big Data and Artificial Intelligence
dr. ir. Martijn van Otterlo
Amsterdam Center for Business Analytics (ACBA), KIN Research/FEWEB, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Abstract: New “business models” for the public library in the modern arise in the digital age, where information is omnipresent and the library is not the sole source of knowledge anymore. Drivers for such changes are individual customers (who demand more convenience and services), technology (every day new electronics and algorithms appear that can do “more”) and private companies (that offer new services on the basis of new opportunities, for example using big data). Before, we have described (van Otterlo, 2016) how four general innovations can come together to form a “library laboratory environment” in which libraries can “experiment” with their patrons, collections and services in order to “optimize” what the library is offering (such as collections, services, physical library space, customer relations programmes, marketing campaigns and many others). In the BLIIPS project we are working on measuring patron behavior using sensors in the library and analysing the resulting data with artificial intelligence methods to obtain insights and optimize the library. Project like BLIIPS face two different, but related, challenges. First, technical challenges require new sensors and algorithms to do data science in the first place. Second, new ethical challenges arise (van Otterlo, 2017) when algorithms are used to monitor patrons and optimize their library, their source of knowledge and the configuration of their place of being. All interactions between library and patron that used to be government locally, qualitatively, by people, are now being handled, stored and analyzed, globally, quantitatively, using algorithms. The profound impacts, such as on intellectual privacy (van Otterlo, 2015), of this transformation need to be considered. The proposed paper describes some technical results in monitoring patron behavior, and will analyze the new ethical dimensions of doing so.
Keywords: Digitalization, Artificial intelligence, Library use, Data analytics, Smart sensors, Libraryness, Physical-digital continuum, Public library References van Otterlo (2015) The Libraryness of Calculative Devices : Artificially intelligent librarians and their impact on information consumption, in: Algorithmic Life, L. Amoore and V. Piotukh (eds.) Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, London UK. van Otterlo, M. (2016) Project BLIIPS: Making the Physical Public Library more Intelligent through Artificial Intelligence, in proceedings of QQML-2016 van Otterlo, M (2017) From intended to intentional archivists: new ethical frameworks for archiving, curating and gatekeeping (in preparation).
Libraries: Centre or Periphery?
TH Köln (former: Cologne University of Applied Sciences), Cologne, Germany
Abstract: The paper examines the role and position of libraries in their funding organisations from multiple perspectives. While customer orientation has become increasingly important in libraries for many years, the contribution to the overall corporate strategy has played a rather subordinate role. Libraries started to define their own library strategy very much orientated on user needs and changing library services and products. What attracted less attention war the contribution of the library to achieve the overall corporate objectives of the funding organisations, i.e. the contribution to the company strategy. But this is a critical point, because a visible and demonstrable contribution of the library characterizes the perception by the top management. Does the library help to achieve the long-term direction and goals of the institution? How can results be demonstrated? The paper addresses the different directions of communication that modern library management has to apply within the organisation. It is not only that embedded or liaison librarians are needed to firmly anchor the library in the centre of the institution. It is an embedded library as a whole that has to prove relevance and importance to the future of the institution. Without strong links to the top management of the funding institutions even very well performing libraries will stay at the periphery instead of the centre of their institution.
About the author: Since 1998, she has been working as a professor at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences. Her research focuses on user research and library management. In the field of quantitative online research and customer analysis, she regularly conducts projects with the participation of students. Since 2010 she has been Dean of the Faculty of Information Science and Communication Studies.
1. Session Title:Breaking the Borders. How to Measure Impact of the New Innovative Customer Oriented Services? Coordinators:Markku Laitinen1, Jarmo Saarti2 and Antti-Pekka Seppänen3 1National Library of Finland 2University of Eastern Finland 3Regional State Administrative Agency of Southern Finland
The coordinators will be chairing the session and they will choose the speakers.
Scope & rationale: The libraries have started to act in a more networked manner, both with each other and with different service providers. Thus, a need to develop new kinds of service concepts has arisen and new innovative services are being developed. This means that new evaluation methods and indicators will be needed in order to indicate the value and impact of these services. The need for the new indicators goes beyond mere numerical indicators, the main goal being to obtain knowledge about the strengths as well as needs for development of the services. These tools on the other hand support the management keeping in mind the value added for the patrons. The main themes of the session are: • emerging new service concept • innovation ecosystem of the libraries • measurement, assessing • innovation management Keywords: innovation, library services, assessment, measuring
List of Papers and call for papers
1. Markku Laitinen, National Library of Finland, “Aspects of Measuring the Impact of New Innovations”. 2. Katri Rintamäki, Tritonia Academic Library, University of Vaasa, Finland, Christina Flemmin, Tritonia Academic Library, Åbo Akademi University, Finland, Anne Lehto, Tritonia Academic Library, University of Vaasa, Finland, Jonna Toukonen, Tritonia Academic Library, University of Vaasa, Finland, “Creating Value for All : Joint Academic Library in the Service of Five Universities”. 3. Olga Einasto University of Tartu Library, Estonia, “The Instrument for Evaluating of E-service Quality of Academic Library”. 4. Timo Laine & Markku Laitinen, National Library of Finland,“The Finna Service: Meeting the New Challenges of Collecting Data for Measuring, Evaluation and Decision-Making in Cultural Heritage Organizations”. 5. Shali Zhang, Dean of Libraries and Professor, Maureen and Mike Mansfield Library, University of Montana, USA, “You Have a Good Idea, and We Offer a Support - A Student-Centered s Innovative Program at a University Library”. 6. Antti-Pekka Seppänen, Regional State Administrative Agency of Southern Finland, Finland, Markku Laitinen, National Library of Finland and Harri Laihonen, University of Tampere, Faculty of Management, Tampere, Finland, “Public Value and Performance of Libraries - Measuring the Impact of a New Customer-orientated Service Innovation”.
2. Session Title: From Assessment to Adjustment: Using Data to Evaluate and Improve Collections
Scope & rationale: In times of budget cuts and scarce spaces, it is crucial to be strategic when developing and managing collections. What information can be used to inform these acquisition decisions? In this session, hear from presenters who used different assessment approaches – from comparative collection analysis and circulation data to surveys, interviews, and discussions – to improve their collection policies and better meet the needs of their users.
List of Papers
1. A. Jade Alburo, Librarian for Southeast Asian and Pacific Islands Studies, Charles E. Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) (Los Angeles, CA), firstname.lastname@example.org, “Southeast Asian Studies Collections in the US: A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Major Collections” 2. Paolo P. Gujilde, Coordinator of Collection Development, Zach S. Henderson Library, Georgia Southern University (Statesboro, GA), email@example.com, “Print Monograph Circulation Data: Trends and Transitions” 3. Latanya N. Jenkins, Reference Librarian for Government Information & Africology & African American Studies, Samuel L. Paley Library, Temple University (Philadelphia, PA), firstname.lastname@example.org, “A comparative Assessment of Peer Institutions’ Collections: Measuring Africology and African American Studies Collections" 4. Lilly Hoi-sze HO, Assistant Director of Technical Services, Library and Learning Commons, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates, “Using Scopus for Collection Assessment in a Middle Eastern, English Curriculum University”
• [Willing to accept 1-2 additional presenters]
3. Session Title: Linking Research and Practice: The Synergies and Their Relevance to Practice, Policy and Academia
Scope & rationale: In an era of partnerships and collaboration, rapid advances in information technology, paradigm shifts in research, learning and teaching, the growing research output that is increasingly becoming open access and the demands from library users/patrons, there is need to build on the synergies to impact academic and research libraries’ service delivery. Practicing librarians who conduct research or LIS academics and researchers who do research related to the practice of academic librarianship are invited to contribute papers to this session. The papers should share research findings about innovative practices and experiences – what works and what doesn’t - to enable the participants to learn from the best practices or avoid what doesn’t work. The application of the research findings to library service delivery, policy and in theories relevant to academics will enrich the session.
List of Papers
1. Maria G. N. Musoke, Makerere University, Uganda, and Dick Kawooya, University of South Carolina, USA, “Health Information Behavior of Women in Low-income Communities: A Comparative Study of South Carolina and Uganda” 2. Sylvia Martha Munafu, Makerere University Library, Uganda, “The Designing and Implementation of Knowledge Management Systems in Academic Libraries to Enable Knowledge Management Processes: a Case Study of Makerere University Library” 3. Martha Attridge Bufton, Subject Specialist, Reference Services, Carleton University Library, Ottawa, Canada, “Aditawazi nisoditadiwin: Between Two Worlds, Understanding Both. A New Approach to Creating Metadata for an Indigenous Film Collection” 4. Patrick Sekikome, Academic librarians, Makerere University, Uganda, “Developing a Strategy and Action Plan for Sustainably Digitising Specific Special Collections: A Case of Buganda Kingdom Collection at the Makerere University Library, Uganda”
4. Session Title: Bibliometrics and Scientometrics
Coordinator: Teresa S. Welsh
Ph.D., Professor and Director, School of Library & Information Science, University of Southern Mississippi, USA
Scope & rationale: Bibliometrics literally means the measurement of books but it has come to mean the analysis of patterns of information related to usage data or publication data in print or electronic format. Scientometrics has been defined as the “quantitative study of science, communication in science, and science policy” (Hess, 1997). This session will focus on research such as publication pattern analysis, citation analysis, and content analysis of scholarly literature, Web sites, databases, or collections.
Paper Teresa S. Welsh, Ph.D., Professor and Director, School of Library & Information Science, University of Southern Mississippi, USA, “Strategies for Public Libraries’ Success and Sustainability: A Content Analysis of LIS Literature”.
Workshop Title: IMAGINE: Information discovery on the WWW, using search by image: a workshop
Abstract Introduction This tutorial workshop is based on a continuing investigation of the power, applicability, and usefulness of search by image through the Internet.
Background and purpose In this relatively new method for information retrieval, a query does not consist of text but of an image file. The search results lead to images on the WWW and also to related documents. Other terms used for this method are • Search(ing) by example • Reverse image search(ing) • Reverse image lookup = RIL • Backwards image search(ing) • Inside search(ing) • Content-based information retrieval = CBIR Furthermore, a search query can also consist of a combination of an image with text.
Topics 1. Several online services are available free of charge to search by image. 2. Differences among these services are substantial. 3. The search service offered by Google performs relatively well. 4. Google can reveal images present on the Internet, which are copies of the query/source image; however, the success is quite variable from case to case. 5. This recall performance is strongly correlated with the performance of a more classical Google search by text to find copies of the query/source image file on the Internet. 6. Even images that are modified versions of the query/source image can be revealed by Google; more specifically, such modified versions can differ from the source image in size and in colours; even fragments and edited fragment of the source image that are present on the internet can be revealed. 7. Our tests have demonstrated that since 2014 search by image can not only find images that are visually similar to the query/source image, but can even retrieve images that are semantically similar/related to the query/source image, even when visual similarity is not obvious. The search results may also include a description of the subject on the image, and this can of course be interesting if the user has not yet much knowledge about the subject, so that using a specific text query becomes possible. Furthermore, other information related to the image and relevant links may also be included in the search results. 8. The performance of search by image to find images that are semantically similar to the query/source image is improving. 9. Not only pure, simple search either with words or with a source image is possible by the freely available search system offered by Google, but a search query can also consist of a combination of an image with words. This allows us to combine the strengths of more classical text retrieval with the more recent search by image. Our tests have shown that this allows us to obtain search results with a precision that is higher than when only one of both search methods is used.
Various applications can be shown: • Starting from an image that you created or that is affiliated with your organization , you may find copies/duplicates or even modified versions on the WWW. This can reveal copyright infringements, and in a more positive way, this allows to assess the impact of such images on a worldwide audience. For example: Curators or owners of a collection of objects can assess the impact and reuse of photos of the physical objects in their collection, on a worldwide scale. • Starting from some interesting image that you have not created, but that you consider as interesting, and that is perhaps not the original version and for which the creator/author is not indicated, you may find other and better versions that are more suitable for your application and need; also you may find the author(s) on the WWW, which can be useful to obtain more information or to discuss possible copyright linked to the image. • Also searching by image may allow us to discover that the image that illustrates and supports a document is NOT real / authentic, but that is has been copied from another site, from another context and perhaps that it has even been modified / changed / doctored, to support the text, the claims of the author of the document. • Starting from some interesting source image, you may find semantically related images; in other words, you may discover images with a subject that is related to the subject of that source image. Furthermore, including some text in the query may increase the precision of the results, even when not enough knowledge is available in advance, so that only one or a few unspecific search words can be used. • Consider the scenario in which you have already sufficient information/knowledge in advance to formulate and submit a specific, focused search query; even then, including an image to the search query can be useful to increase the precision of the results. Furthermore, in each of these applications, you may also find related text information.
Conclusion: Search by image is evolving to a powerful, additional method to tackle information needs that are difficult to handle with more classical methods. Furthermore, using a combination of text and an image in a query can increase the precision of the search results in comparison with a more classical pure text search or with a simple, pure search by image.
Recommendations: The growing success of the search methods that include an image in the query to find relevant information lead us to a few recommendations: 1. To find relevant information, these recent, additional search methods should be considered besides more classical methods, by librarians and information intermediaries in general, and also by end-users of information discovery systems. 2. As a consequence, search by image deserves a place in educational courses and tutorials on information and media literacy. 3. Authors and publishers in general want to create their publications and make these available in such a way that they rank high in the results of relevant search and discovery systems. Therefore it is good practice to take into account the workings of at least the classical, popular, search services, in the creation and optimization of their website(s). Not only the texts in a website should be considered, but also images, to optimize --for a relatively classical search with a text query to find images, --for a more recent search by image, or --for a search with a query that consists of text plus an image file. More concretely, website developers should try to publish their meaningful images in such a way that these can be well harvested, analysed and included in the database index of relevant search systems in an effective way.
Goals and learning objectives Participants learn about state-of-the-art applications and limitations of reverse image search on the internet and WWW. So they will be motivated and enabled to apply this relatively new method to discover information and to support other potential users.
Format and method This workshop can be organized and offered as a lecture illustrated with practical examples. Interactions with the participants can make the lecture more dynamic. The workshop can include some time for practical tests and applications, if the participant has access to a computer and internet.
The target audience No restrictions. For everyone interested in the topic.
Time: 2.5 hours, including applications by the participants.
Keywords: Search by image; Reverse image searching; Internet; WWW; Search systems; Search services; TinEye; Google; Recall; Precision; Semantic gap
References Marques, Oge (2016) Visual Information Retrieval: The State of the Art. IT Professional, Volume: 18, Issue: 4, DOI: 10.1109/MITP.2016.70 (accessed in 2016).
Nieuwenhuysen, Paul (2014) Search by image through the Internet: applications and limitations. In Libraries in the Transition Era: New Space – New Services – New Experience. The Proceedings of the Seventh Shanghai International Library Forum, organized by the Shanghai Library, in Shanghai Library, China, 9-11 July 2014 http://www.libnet.sh.cn/silf2014/english/index.htm Shanghai : Shanghai Scientific and Technological Literature Press, http://www.sstlp.com, 476 pp, ISBN 978-7-5439-6289-7. pp. 145-155.
Nieuwenhuysen, Paul (2015) Search by image through the Internet: an additional method to find information. In Transforming Libraries and Librarianship, Delhi : KBD Publication, 502 pp. Edited by Sanjay Kataria, John Paul Anbu, Shri Ram, Nirmal Kumar Swain, Naresh Singh Bhandari, 2015, ISBN: 978-81-907999-6-6, pp. 179-194. full text also available free of charge from http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/presentations/
Nieuwenhuysen, Paul (2016) Information discovery on the Internet, using a search query that consists of text & an image.